Doyle's formulation of a Truth Maintenance System (TMS) allows for the revision of beliefs in the event of a contradiction. Doyle presents four possible methods for choosing which assumption to reject when a contradiction is discovered, but all of them rely on either random selection or a priori domain dependent information. The Truth Maintenance System with Cognitive Dissonance (TMS-CD) is an extension of Doyle's TMS that decides which beliefs to reject based on the concepts of Festinger's Cognitive Dissonance Theory. The TMS-CD is able to decide between beliefs based on the structure of a belief network instead of any domain dependent information. Because the TMS-CD algorithm is based on Cognitive Dissonance Theory, it should lead to more human-like patterns of behavior in automated reasoning systems.

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